Anesthesiology Clinics, March 2016, Vol. 34 Issue: Number 1 p143-153, 11p;
Enhanced recovery after surgery is the natural evolution of what were previously referred to as fast track programs and seeks to implement a series of interventions to improve and enhance recovery after major surgical procedures. Two important preoperative aspects are nutrition and prehabilitation. Identifying nutritionally deficient patients allows preoperative intervention to optimize their nutritional status. The contribution of cardiopulmonary exercise testing to the evaluation of perioperative risk, subsequent development of a training program, and the use of indices to risk stratify and measure improvement after a training program allow a personalized preoperative program to be developed for each patient.